By Kyle J. Norton
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or foods with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China.
Gallocatechin, containing catechin is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, almonds, black diamond plums, black tea, cocoa beans, Fuji apples, golden delicious apple, etc.
1. Bone metabolism
In the investigation of three tea catechins, epigallocatechin (EGC), gallocatechin (GC), and gallocatechin gallate (GCG) for their effects on bone metabolism, researchers found that EGC significantly inhibit osteoclast formations from RAW 264.7 cells upon receptor activation of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand induction on the fourth day of treatment, at a concentration of 10 microM(1).
Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) is the essential factor for osteoclast formation, fusion, activation, and survival, thus resulting in bone resorption and bone loss.
EGC also at dose-dependently inhibited the mRNA expression of tatrate-resistant acid phosphatase(1) which plays a critical role in many biological processes including skeletal development, collagen synthesis and degradation, the mineralisation of bone(14),
Further more, GC and GCG could decrease osteoclastogenesis at 20 microM.
Dr. Chun Hay Ko, the lead author said, “tea catechins, EGC in particular, had positive effects on bone metabolism through a double process of promoting osteoblastic activity(bone formation) and inhibiting osteoclast differentiation(bone re absorption)”(1).
2. Antimetastatic effects
In the evaluation of the antimetastatic effects of P urinaria L extracts (PUE), containing polyphenols including gallic acid, methyl gallate, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, gallocatechin-3-gallate, rutin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and naringin, researchers found that PUE inhibits the transcription of of MMP-2 osteoblasts that regulates osteopontin and bone protein expression in bone metastasis of osteotropic cancers(2).
Further more, PUE also exerted an inhibitory effect on the DNA-binding activity and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 in induction of secondary cancer and growth of LLC cells in vivo(2)
“(These results suggested that) PUE could be applied applied to be a potential antimetastatic agent”, Dr. Tseng HH, the lead scientists at the Antai Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital said(2).
In the determination of the effect of green tea catechins on the invasive potential of human melanoma cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (Non-BRAF-mutated) melanoma cell lines in vitro model, researchers found that application of green tea catechins inhibits melanoma cell migration, through transition of mesenchymal stage to epithelial stage in induction of tumor growth to advanced stage(3).
These results indicate that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, has the ability to inhibit melanoma cell invasion/migration, an essential step of metastasis, by targeting endogenous expression of COX-2, which plays an important role in increased production of PGE2, the hormone that modulates skin caner cell proliferation from epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition(3).
4. Antidiabetic activity
In the observation of Terminalia sericea stem bark extract and theirs effect against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzymes, four known compounds namely beta-sitosterol (1), beta-sitosterol-3-acetate (2), lupeol (3), and stigma-4-ene-3-one (4), in addition to two inseparable sets of mixtures of isomers [epicatechin-catechin (M1), and gallocatechin-epigallocatechin (M2). scientists found that 1 and 3 show the best inhibitory activity on alpha-glucosidase (IC50:54.5 and 66.5 microM) located in the brush border of the small intestine with function in stimulated digestion of carbohydrates that facilitates onset of diabetes mellitus type 2(4).
Bio-evaluation of the inhibitory activity of the purified compounds on alpha-amylase showed that 3 and 1 exhibit IC50 values of 140.7 and 216.02 microM, respectively against alpha-amylase, a protein enzyme that -links polysaccharides in induction of glucose and maltose with no side effects(4).
5. Anti-uveal melanoma and cancers activity
In the study of the new compound gallocatechin 5-O-gallate isolated to MeOH extract of Acacia nilotica pods, scientists found that the newly found compound exerts a significant effect in inhibited uveal melanoma, a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris(5).
Further more, the antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds and the related compound epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) also have a profound effect in protected healthy cells against the development of cutaneous melanoma, ovarian cancer, glioblastoma and normal retinal pigmented cells(5).
6. Degenerative diseases
In the investigation of whether green tea and its components can regulate the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in pluripotent rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)in MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of tibiae and femora in rat, researchers found that among six tested tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin (EGC) processes the most effective in promoting osteogenic differentiation.
At 20 μM, EGC increased ALP levels and Ca deposition significantly in promote bone denesity by 2.3- and 1.7-fold, respectively,
When compared with the control group. EGC also increased the mRNA expression of bone formation markers runt-related transcription factor 2, ALP, osteonectin, and osteopontin(6)
In the identification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and its important roles in the maintenance of cellular redox balance, researchers found that pretreatment with green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) effectively blocks peroxynitrite-induced glutathione depletion(antioxidant enzyme in the host), p53 accumulation in suppressed irregular cell growth and apoptosis in both normal and G6PD-deficient cells(7).
EGCG, administered to cells alone or as pretreatment, caused activation of protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, that plays a key role in multiple cellular process in promoted survival and growth in response to extracellular signals.
The protective effect was abolished by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, a steroid metabolite with function as immune suppressors(7).
8. Anti HIV
In the investigation of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea and its effect on HIV-1, scientists found that EGCG appears to act mainly as an allosteric reverse transcriptase inhibitor with mechanisms different from those of currently approved NNRTIs used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)(8).
Thus, EGCG is a good candidate for use as an additional or supportive anti-HIV agent derived from natural plants, according to “Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the HIV reverse transcription step” by Li S, Hattori T, Kodama EN.(8)
9. Anti inflammatory activities
In the evaluation of the radioprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols and the component ingredients against irradiated-induced damage in mice and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, researchers found that GTP and its bioactive components (catechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate) assists in decreasing the leukocytopenia, disease that decreases number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood(9).
Injection of GTP and its bioactive components, significantly reduced the elevated serum inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6)(9).
These results suggested that green tea polyphenols have a potential to be developed as radioprotective agents against irradiated-induced toxicity(9).
Furthermore, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of GTP can be attributed to the interaction of the different components through multiple and synergistic mechanisms.
10. Anti microbial effects
In the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of nanocatechin on CBP and plasma concentration of catechins in an animal model, researchers showed that the use of ciprofloxacin, catechin, and nanocatechin statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control and catechin group..
Plasma concentrations of epicatechin, gallocatechingallate, and epigallocatechin gallate, were significantly higher in the nanocatechin group than those in the catechin group.
These results suggest that nanocatechin has better antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects on rat CBP than catechin due to higher absorption into the body(10).
11. Ultraviolet B irradiation protection
In the investigation of the protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the immune function of dendritic cells (DCs) after ultraviolet B irradiation (UVB), scientists found that the inhibition rate of DCs was improved to some extent after treatment with 200 microg/mL of EGCG.
UVB showed no significant influence on the secretion of IL-10 and IL-12 from DCs, while EGCG was able to down-regulate the secretion level of IL-12 and up-regulate that of IL-10.(11).
12. Antiviral effect
In the identification of tea polyphenols ability to inhibit enterovirus 71 (EV71) replication in Vero cell culture, researchers found that the viral inhibitory effect correlated well with the antioxidant capacity of polyphenol(12).
Mechanistically, EV71 infection led to increased oxidative stress, as shown by increased dichlorofluorescein and MitoSOX Red fluorescence(12).
Upon EGCG treatment, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was significantly reduced.
Consistent with this, EV71 replication was enhanced in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient cells, and such enhancement was largely reversed by EGCG(12).
13. Neuroprotective effect
In the research of beta-Amyloid (Abeta) peptide, a major component of senile plaques that play a crucial role in the development and neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), researchers found that EGCG may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential in AD patients by augmenting cellular antioxidant defense capacity and attenuating Abeta-mediated oxidative and/or nitrosative cell death(13).
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.