####Caffeinated Coffee, The Beverage Which Protects Cells Integrity Against Genotoxicity, Biomedical Literature Reveal

By Kyle J. Norton

Coffee and coffee caffeine may have a profound and positive effect in reduced risk of genotoxicity, caused by environment toxins, a coffee production company opinionated.

Genotoxicity is am action that cause alternation of cell DNA due overwhelming toxin accumulated in the cells.  In most cases, the alternation affect the cells integrity, leading to cancers.

Substances such as radiation and chemicals that cause genotoxicity are called gentotoxins.
Highly genotoxic chemicals include the known potent carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene, aflatoxin B1, N-nitroso compounds, and various alkylating agents that directly act on DNA, causing breakage and cross-linking, and the formation of DNA adducts, abasic sites, oxidative damage, alkylation, and various other DNA lesions(4).
Interestingly, some genotoxins do not directly act on DNA but cause numerical chromosome aberrations during cell division(4).
Furthermore, certain chemicals used in pesticides, food additives, starches, shampoos, and fireproof and crease-proof fabrics may be considered as genotoxins as they also cause genetic mutations.
Moreover,  automobile exhaust fumes and medicine used for their antibacterial activity and in chemotherapy(5), chemicals from occupational sources and tobacco  may also induce mutations and cancer(6).
Coffee, a popular and social beverage all over the world, particular in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.

In rat liver and primary hepatocytes, regular intake of coffee daily illustrated a enormous effect in cellular antioxidant defenses through regulating exhibited enzymes involved mRNA and protein expression.

The study also suggested that coffee and coffee caffeine through expression of detoxifying enzymes GSTs and AKR(in cellular detoxification) also demonstrated a significant activity in reduced risk of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by injection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1).

Dr. Cavin C, ther lead author said, ” the coffee-mediated stimulation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway resulting in increased endogenous defense mechanisms against electrophilic but also oxidative insults further support that coffee may be associated with a protection against various types of chemical stresses”.
(Please note that Nrf2-ARE pathway is an indicator and modulator of oxidative stress)

Other, in the evaluated L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell line to assess modulatory effects of coffee against genotoxicity induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), researchers found that
* 3 doses of instant coffee caffeine injection displayed a decrease in genotoxicity following co-treatment of mouse lymphoma cells.

* Coffee caffeine pre-treatment or co-treatment exhibited significant antigenotoxic effects against MNNG(an environmental carcinogen that causes DNA mutation) expression.

*Both caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee demonstrated a similar effect against genotoxicity in the experiment samples.

Dr. Abraham SK, the lead authors said, ” Results from three or five independent experiments demonstrated significant protective effects of caffeinated instant coffee against MNNG-induced DNA damage in the comet assay, mutation at the Tk locus and chromosomal damage in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test”.

In support of the above analysis, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), in the study of protective effects of coffee against somatic mutation and mitotic recombination induced by chemo drugs, cyclophosphamide (CPH)(, mitomycin C (MMC) and urethane (URE), using standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses of the wing spot test in Drosophila melanogaster assays, suggested that in dose depending, coffee injection showed a strong effect in the genotoxicity of URE in the ST and the genetically susceptible HB cross as well as the genotoxicity caused by MMC application.

Dr. Abraham SK, the lead researcher said, “The magnitude of the protective effects of coffee against these three genotoxins was independent of the genotype of the larvae used for treatment, that is it was independent of the bioactivation capacity of these larvae”.

The collective information showed a definitive support of coffee and coffee caffeine may be used as functional food in reduced risk against genotoxic expression, including side effects of chemo medicine used in treatment of multi types of cancers.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Induction of Nrf2-mediated cellular defenses and alteration of phase I activities as mechanisms of chemoprotective effects of coffee in the liver by Cavin C1, Marin-Kuan M, Langouët S, Bezençon C, Guignard G, Verguet C, Piguet D, Holzhäuser D, Cornaz R, Schilter B.(PubMed)
(2) Anti-genotoxicity of coffee against N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in mouse lymphoma cells by Abraham SK1, Stopper H.(PubMed)
(3) Protection by coffee against somatic genotoxicity in Drosophila: role of bioactivation capacity by Abraham SK1, Graf U.(PubMed)
(4) Thresholds of Toxicological Concern for Genotoxic Impurities in Pharmaceuticals by Masamitsu Honma
(5) Structure−Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Mutagens and Carcinogens: Mechanistic Investigations and Prediction Approaches by  Romualdo Benigni
(6) Aromatic amines and cancer by Vineis P1, Pirastu R.(PubMed)