* Carrot and Its Bioactive Chemical Compounds in Reduced Risk and Treatment of Colon Cancer

Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition

Carrots may have a profound and positive effect in reduced risk, progression and treatment of colon cancer, some scientists suggested.

Colon cancer is a chronic condition characterized by irregular cell growth in the colon tissue. At the later stage, the cancerous cells may travel a distance away from the original site to infect other healthy tissue and organs.

As of today, researchers do not know what cause colon cancer. However, certain risk factors, such as genetic mutations that induce healthy DNA change are associated to increase risk of cancer.

Some researchers suggested that unhealthy diet  and life style such as American diet  with high intake of red meat, low intake of fiber, low intake of calcium, cigarette smoking,…. and obesity are the prevalent risk factors of colon cancer(4).

And increase consumption of a wide variety of fruit and vegetable, particularly, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, a deep-yellow on tones, and fibre are convincing preventive factors(5).

Dr. Corrêa Lima MP, the lead author at the Mato Grosso Federal University said, ” lifestyle modification including proper diet such as the ones rich in vegetable and poor in red meat and fat, regular physical activity and maintaining an appropriate body weight and avoiding the use of tobacco and alcohol may lead to reduce colorectal cancer risk”(5).
Patients in early stage colon cancer may experience gastrointestinal symptoms of changes in your bowel habits, constipation. diarrhea or alternating diarrhea and constipation. Some patients may also develop symptoms of  from rectal bleeding or blood in your stool, abdominal bloating,…. and cramps or discomfort.

Truly, some chronic conditions and medicine use for treatments also were found to increased risk of colon cancer, including diabetes, acromegaly, a growth hormone disorder, ,,, and radiation treatment for other cancers.

In US, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women. 
According to statistic of American Cancer Society, in 2018, approximately, 97,220 new cases of colon cancer.and 43,030 new cases of rectal cancer.are diagnosed in US. Colorectal cancer also causes death of 50,630 during 2018(6).
Carrot, a root vegetable with orange color is a sub spices of Daucus carota, belongings to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

According to the study to determine the anticancer activity of the pentane fraction (F1) and the 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) isolated from Daucus Carota oil extract (DCOE) against human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2), application of various concentration of both extracts exerted significant inhibitory effect against proliferation and induced apoptosis through numbers of factors.

The observation by Western blot revealed that the activity of F1 and F2 constrict the tumors expansion through activation of caspase-3, the key protein facilitators with function to execute apoptosis or program cell death and PARP cleavage, with function in stimulated various pathological cell death processes.  

Further analysis also suggested that F1 and F2 inhibited the cell death processes through increased levels of Bax expression in initiated pro-apoptotsis involved in a wide variety of cellular activities and p53 in regulated cell cycle as a tumor suppressor.

Together, both injections also deceased levels of Bcl-2 with function in inhibited tumor cells apoptosis.

Moreover, treatment of HT-29 cells with either fraction markedly also induced cell adhesion, cell cycle progression, cell migration, cell apoptosis through decreased the levels of both phosphorylated Erk and Akt.

Activation of oncogenic signalling proteins AKT and ERK by phosphorylation has an established role in the development of certain types of cancer(7).

Additionally, in mice model, β-2-himachalen-6-ol (HC) isolated from the Daucus carota oil extract st the concentration of 1, 5, 10 and 25 μg/ml, were also found to inhibit numbers of cancers, including colon cell progression.

In SW1116 colon cancer cell lines, injection of β-2-himachalen-6-ol (HC) demonstrated a significantly inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent in decreased cell survival with an IC50 of 18 and 14.5 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h respectively.

According to the Flow cytometry analysis, at concentration of 10 μg/ml, HC increased the number of tumors cells undergoing necrosis of 18.05% and 58.01% and late apoptosis of 15.66% and 30.47%, respectively.

These results suggested that β-2-himachalen-6-ol (HC) induced cancer cell apoptosis and cancer growth restriction, linearly in doses dependent manner.

Additional differentiation also suggested the application exerted anti colon cancers cell line effect through similar proteins and pathways as mentioned in the first study.
Most importantly, β-2-himachalen-6-ol (HC) in inhibited colon cancer cell line through cytotoxicity in cell cycle arrested without causing harm to the nearby health cells.

The above illustration were also supported by the investigation of beta-carotene and lycopene, a bioactive phytochemical found in carrot in a modify luminal process relevant to colon carcinogenesis conducted by the Technical University of Munich.

According to the randomized cross-over trial of twenty-two healthy young men on a low-carotenoid diet consumed 330 ml tomato or carrot juice per d for 2 weeks, consumption of carrot juice led to a marked increase of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene in faecal water with high dose-dependent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29).
Taken together, carrot and its bioactive compounds may be considered as function food in ameliorated risk and increased efficacy of conventional medicine for treatment of colon cancer.

However, further data collection on large example size and multi centers studies performed with human consumption of the carrot and its bioactive phytochemicals, during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of their anti colon cancer possibilities.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Sources
(1) Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways by Shebaby WN1, Bodman-Smith KB1, Mansour A2, Mroueh M3, Taleb RI4, El-Sibai M4, Daher CF4.(PubMed)
(2) Effects of carrot and tomato juice consumption on faecal markers relevant to coloncarcinogenesis in humans by Schnäbele K1, Briviba K, Bub A, Roser S, Pool-Zobel BL, Rechkemmer G.(PubMed)

(3) Antitumor activity of β-2-himachalen-6-ol in colon cancer is mediated through its inhibition of the PI3K and MAPK pathways by Daaboul HE1, Daher CF2, Bodman-Smith K1, Taleb RI2, Shebaby WN2, Boulos J2, Dagher C3, Mroueh MA4, El-Sibai M5.(PubMed)
(4) Lifestyle Factors and Their Combined Impact on the Risk of Colorectal Polyps by Zhenming Fu, Martha J. Shrubsole, Walter E. Smalley, Huiyun Wu, Zhi Chen, Yu Shyr, Reid M. Ness, and Wei Zheng(PMC)
(5) Colorectal cancer: lifestyle and dietary factors by Corrêa Lima MP1, Gomes-da-Silva MH(PubMed)
(6) Key Statistics for Colorectal Cancer by American Cancer Society
(7) ERK and AKT phosphorylation status in lung cancer and emphysema using nanocapillary isoelectric focusing by Crosbie PA1, Crosbie EJ2, Aspinall-O’Dea M3, Walker M3, Harrison R4, Pernemalm M5, Shah R6, Joseph L7, Booton R8, Pierce A3, Whetton AD(PubMed)