##### Carrot, The Root Vegetable Which Inhibits Onset of Chronic Diseases Caused By Oxidative Stress

Kyle J. Norton
Carrots may have a profound and positive effect in reduced over expression reactive oxygen species that cause chronic diseases, through antioxidant activities, some scientists suggested.

Antioxidant is a substance characterized by its function in inhibited oxidation, especially in balanced the ratio of free radicals and antioxidant levels in the body to prevent the initiation of oxidatively related diseases.

Chronic diseases are conditions that last longer than 3 months and can not cure by medication.
The diseases are most common in aging population.

Most common chronic diseases are arthritis, cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and stroke. Cancer such as breast and colon cancer, diabetes.

Sadly, in North America, the most common chronic disease is obesity, affecting over 28% of general population.. In other words, 1 in 3 adults are obese, according to calculation by BMI index.
The causes of chronic diseases are well established by epidemiological studies. There are a set of risk facts including unhealthy diet, physical inactivity,…. and tobacco use that induce preventable chronic illness through intermediate risk factors such as high blood pressure, and glucose levels, abnormal blood lipids, overweight and obesity. 
The major non modifiable risk factors that also cause chronic diseases are age and heredity.
Dr. George E. Hardy, Jr, the lead scientist in the study of “The Burden of Chronic Disease: The Future is Prevention” wrote, “Chronic diseases impose an enormous financial and societal burden on the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), chronic diseases today account for 70% of the deaths of all Americans and 75% of this country’s annual health care costs” and More importantly, “Unless we take steps now to deal effectively with chronic diseases, our nation is headed for a serious financial and quality-of-life crisis”(4).

Carrot, a root vegetable with orange color is a sub spices of Daucus carota, belongings to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

The efficacy of carrot acted as an antioxidant to protect against oxidation was reported by numbers of institution including the Texas A&M University and University of Messina.

According to the investigation of phenolic antioxidants in three carrots cultivars (Navajo, Legend and Choctaw) were studied under different wounding intensities (A/W) during storage, researchers found that carrot soluble phenolics exert a significant antioxidant capacity (AOX), and PAL activity in protect against increased with A/W for all cultivars.

In Intense wounding (23.5 cm(2)/g) induced an ∼2.5- and ∼12.4-fold displayed a strong in increased production of soluble phenolics and AOX, respectively, after 4 days in compared to whole and lesser wound carrots through the AOX synthesis of mainly chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid.

These results suggested that intentional carrot wound may have a potential effect as an inexpensive rich source of phenolic antioxidants for the regular diet (with some resistances from public), as Dr. Surjadinata BB, the lead author said, ” By simply increasing wounding stress intensity it is possible to enhance the biosynthesis of phenolic antioxidants”.

Moreover, according to the investigation of the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic effect in antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties.

Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.

The root vegetable contains also high amounts of anthocyanins in expression of the characteristic of deep-purple color.

Anthocyanins are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry.
According to the experiment, application of black carrot crude extract (BCCE) exerted a strong antioxidant through free radical scavenging activity, observed in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability.
The increase in the cell viability may be was attributed to the extract in stimulated production of antioxidants of itself and antioxidants found in the body tissue of the host inhibited the over expression of ROS, resulting in balancing the antioxidants and free radical ratio.

Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity against free radical in alternated DNA of healthy cells in initiation of tumor proliferation, at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg).

Interestingly, ingestion of black carrot crude extract (BCCE) also promoted cytoprotective effect against ROS in causing healthy cell damage and apoptosis.

The analysis of above studies was supported by the joint investigation of purple carrot (PC) as a valuable source of antioxidants in modulated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the gastrointestinal tract conducted by numbers of institutes, lead by the Poznań University of Life Sciences. 
According to the end experiment, application of purple carrot (PC) showed a strong effect in inhibited colonic cells in situ after allowing passage to the gastrointestinal tract.
At dose of 1mg/mL, purple carrot exhibited intracellular ROS-inhibitory capacity observed by 18.4% decreased expression of reactive oxygen species ROS.
Moreover, at inhibited rate of 20.7%, the extract demonstrated a significantly protective effect against free radicals in damage to the DNA of colon mucosa cells.

After taking account of other con founders and re-examine the final results, Dr.Olejnik A, the lead scientist said, “PC extract is capable of colonic cells’ protection against the adverse effects of oxidative stress”.

Taken together, Carrot regardless to color with abundant bioactive phytochemicals may be considered as functional food in reduced risk, progression and treatment of oxidative induced chronic diseases.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Biosynthesis of phenolic antioxidants in carrot tissue increases with wounding intensity by Surjadinata BB1, Cisneros-Zevallos L.(PubMed)
(2) Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) by Smeriglio A1, Denaro M1, Barreca D1, D’Angelo V1, Germanò MP2, Trombetta D1.(PubMed)
(3) Antioxidant effects of gastrointestinal digested purple carrot extract on the human cells of colonic mucosa by Olejnik A1, Rychlik J2, Kidoń M3, Czapski J3, Kowalska K2, Juzwa W2, Olkowicz M2, Dembczyński R2, Moyer MP4.(PubMed)
(4) The Burden of Chronic Disease: The Future is Prevention Introduction to Dr. James Marks’ presentation, “The Burden of Chronic Disease and the Future of Public Health” by George E. Hardy, Jr., MD, MPH, Executive Director(PMC)