Strawberry, The Delicious Fruit Gobbles Up Plaques That Cause Atherosclerosis

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrition), all right reserved.

Intake of strawberry daily may have a potential and therapeutic effect in reduced risk and treatment of atherosclerosis, some scientists suggested.

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition caused by plaques gradually building up on the wall of arteries.

Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood.
Long term accumulated of plaques in the arteries can cause harden of the arterial wall, narrow the artery that have a negative impact in blocking the function of artery in transport nutrients and oxygen  to the body needs.

Patients with atherosclerosis are most likely have pre condition of high blood cholesterol. According to the American Heart Foundation, atherosclerosis developed is totally depending to where plaque develops, type of artery affected.

In other words, depending to where the plaques deposited in the arteries, patients may develop coronary heart disease, angina (chest pain from reduced blood flow to the heart muscle)
carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease,…….. and  chronic kidney disease.

There are no single cause of atherosclerosis. Some researchers suggested that a set of medical conditions such as high blood pressure, long term cadmium accumulation caused by cigarette smoking, high blood cholesterol,… and calcium caused by over secretion of hormone in response to parathyroid glands signalling.
Truly, atherosclerosis usually doesn’t cause symptoms in the early stage of onset. 
However,  as aging progress and narrowing in the artery becomes severe, blood flow may be blocked off, leading to rupture and blood clot.
According to the Heart Foundation in UK, approximately, 2.6 million people in the UK have narrowing of the arteries around the heart, which can lead to a heart attack, angina,

Strawberries is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongings to the family Roseaceae. The plants  have been grown all over the world with suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits.

Nutrients 
1. Carbohydrate
2. Dietary fiber
3. Omega 3 fatty acid
4. Calcium
5. Iron
6. Magnesium
7. Phosphorus
8. Potassium
9. Sodium
10. Zinc
11. Copper
12. Manganese
13. Selenium
14. Vitamin C
15. Thiamin
16. Niacin
17. Pantothenic acid
18. Vitamin B-6
19. Folate
20. Vitamin B-12
21. Vitamin A
22. Vitamin E
23. Vitamin K

and chemicals constituents
The major chemical compounds include anthocyanin and ellagitannins and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin

In the study of 36 subjects with T2D (23 females; mean body mass index 27.90 ± 3.7; mean age 51.57 ± 10 years) were randomly divided into two groups
* The treatment group consumed 2 cups of FDS beverage (50 g of FDS is equivalent to 500 g of fresh strawberries)

* The control group consumed macronutrient matched placebo powder with strawberry flavor in a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

* Both groups consumed the designed supplement daily for 6 weeks

At the end of experiment, researchers found that FDS supplementation significantly decreased C-reactive protein levels and lipid peroxidation in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA).

In other words, FDS inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines caused by over expression of free radical in stimulated cholesterol building up in the arteries through oxidation.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is biomaker of lipid peroxidation and C-reactive protein levels is a biomarker of inflammation.

Furthermore, application of FGS also reduced expression of HbA1c (-5.7%, p h< 0.05) and significant increased total antioxidant status in compared to placebo.
These results suggested that FGS also has a strong effect in reduced three-month average plasma glucose concentration and improved antioxidant status, the indications of decreased risk of devastating complications, including atherosclerosis.
Dr.Moazen S, the lead author after taking into account of co and con fouders, said, “FDS improved glycemic control and antioxidant status, and reduced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response in patients with T2D. Supplementation with freeze-dried berry products, as natural sources of antioxidants with low glycemic index”.
Moreover, the study of 27 subjects with metabolic syndrome (2 males and 25 females; body mass index, 37.5 +/- 2.15 kg/m(2); age, 47.0 +/- 3.0 years [means +/- SE]) with treatment group consumed 4 cups of freeze-dried strawberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried strawberries approximately 3 cups fresh strawberries) and control group consumed equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 4 cups of water) daily for 8 weeks conducted by the Oklahoma State University suggested that strawberry supplementation significantly decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in compared to control group.

Additionally, treatment group also decreased circulating levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, a biohumoral correlate of atherosclerosis in compared to controls at 8 weeks.

The findings provide a strong evidence that whole food strawberry in frozen form processes an anti cholesterol and atherosclerosis activity.

Dr, Basu A, the lead scientist at the final report of the study wrote, “short-term freeze-dried strawberry supplementation improved selected atherosclerotic risk factors, including dyslipidemia and circulating adhesion molecules in subjects with metabolic syndrome”.

More importantly, the Basu A1 and Lyons TJ. study of berries implication on metabolic syndrome indicated that strawberry not only supports therapeutic roles  in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors but also lower total and LDL-cholesterol and surrogate biomarkers malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules of atherosclerosis.

Taken together, strawberry may be considered as a function food in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis through decreasing levels of blood cholesterol.

People with higher risk of atherosclerosis may want to add a portion of fresh strawberry into their diet for preventive measure.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrition), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Reference
(1) Effects of freeze-dried strawberry supplementation on metabolic biomarkers of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. by Moazen S, Amani R, Homayouni Rad A, Shahbazian H, Ahmadi K, Taha Jalali M.(PubMed)
(2) Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome.
Basu A, Fu DX, Wilkinson M, Simmons B, Wu M, Betts NM, Du M, Lyons TJ.(PubMed)
(3) Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Perspectives.
Basu A, Lyons TJ.(PubMed)